E-learning

By Soeun Malydet

“…E-learning program provides convenient and quality education… learners do not need to study abroad…,” said Soeun Malydet

EDUCATION plays an important role in developing country. If we want to develop educational system in one country, the key factor is providing and expanding the wide varieties of choice of people to gain formal or informal education. To reach the efficiency goal, many people desire to study abroad because they think that they can practice and search many documents in native country. However, some people do not have enough ability, so they decide to study in local. Recently; Advancing of science and new technology, people can learn and search information everywhere and every time. It seems like the world is closed to us. This is considered as E-learning. So what is the meaning of E-learning and how does it affects to educational system in Cambodia?

E-learning is the process of learning and providing education through accessing the computer and internet. According to Cambridge dictionary, E-learning is the business of providing courses on the Internet for students so that they can study and learn at home. E-learning provides many skills, and training courses to meet the demands of students, staffs in many organizations or institutes who need to fulfill the required knowledge and to get the high quality to improve the achievement. In Cambodia E-learning is not so popular and well-known because there are not enough institutes which make it available for learners to process this system. However, there is only one institute in Cambodia which can provide E-learning. It is located at Economics Finance Institute (EFI) and it is cooperating with Charles Start University of Australia. At the institute, students have chance to study online in order to upgrade their knowledge and careers. E-learning has both good and bad effects.

E-learning has many essential benefits to contribute to the development of educational system in Cambodia in order to challenge with globalization. First, E-learning helps learners to develop the computer and internet skills which are applicable to other factor of lifelong learning. Learners will get used to computer as well as internet which are the main skill to challenge with real life situation in term of studying and working. Second, E-learning program provides convenient and quality education. For example, learners do not need to study abroad because it can cut down some expenses such as travelling cost or studying materials. In addition, it improves the quality of education. Student will successfully complete online program or computer skill based on their course. Moreover, they can build up self-knowledge and self-confidence in term of taking responsibility of their learning. Third, E-learning program decreases great expense on international exchange programs. For instance, in one year, there are large budgets on expenditure of educational system. However; E-learning program can help to reduce a part of expense. So, E-learning has benefit to educational in Cambodia based on a few positive points above.

Despite of merits of E-learning, there are some disadvantages caused by the program. First, learners may lack of familiar structure and routine may take getting used to. Students themselves do not involve to the real class activities and participate with classroom management or may not get used to true class environment. Second, Students may miss social interaction and feel isolated. They may find themselves lack of self-confidence to deal with the problem occurred face-to-face. They cannot improve their communication skills to make an effective communication with people in real society. Last but not least, students adopt poor learning habits and do not have motivation to learn which may give negative result in their study. They do not participate directly or get any recommendation from lectures on their real performance.

In conclusion, E-learning program has both bad and good effects on Cambodia education. It is good for improving the quality of education; however it is bad to some extend of education quality. I believe that this program will help some students who wish to pursue their knowledge without moving away from their country. It is also impeccable for lifelong learning, and it helps workers to get success in their career. However, it may not suitable for people who wish to study with the real environment. It is appropriate for higher levels in Cambodia education, but it is not applicable in lower levels. I hope E-learning will improve Cambodia educational system to be able to challenge with other countries.

Doctor Profession Ethics


By Ly Xi

“Doctor is the mother of the patients, so he or she must take care of the patients like taking care of the children,” said Ly Xi.

MEDICAL profession has been characterized since it is drawn in history by tremendous responsibilities of practitioner shoulder: extensive knowledge, proper moral, performance, dedication, self-denial, and mercy towards all the people without discrimination. Medical ethics dictates essence from teaching, which is called honesty, sound performance, and consciousness in every act. We can clearly see that the doctor service in Cambodia is not good since a number of doctors say something bad to the patients and they discriminate against the poor people.

Phnom Penh Post newspaper wrote an article of doctor profession ethics in 2010 November that upon entering the medical profession, Cambodian doctors must take a physicians oath similar to the one outlined in the World Medical Association’s declaration of Geneva. One of the central tenants is that doctors practice medicine with “conscience and dignity” with the health of their client as their “first consideration”. Similarly, the International Code of Medical Ethics states that “a doctor must practice his profession uninfluenced by motives of profit”. They may swear to follow these high ethical standards, but unfortunately, the situation doctors face in reality makes it rather difficult in practice. Without any infrastructure to guarantee compensation for their services, too many doctors in the Kingdom demand payment before beginning treatment.

However, as a professional and ethical doctor, he or she must have physician personal qualities and adhere to the duties. The first part of qualities of physician is sincerity, meaning that the physician is the person who patients, their family, relative and community is confident in. This confidence requires all the doctors to be sincere in all the patient’s treatment and counseling.  The second part is truthfulness which mentions that the physician must be truthful when she or he speaks, and writes or testifies any issue. He should guard against friendship ties or fear that may attempt him to give a testimony, report or speech that he knows is contradict to the truth. Thirdly, compassion and sympathy are also the main part for physician to consider. They should be sympathetic to his patient’s feelings and feel pity for his sufferings. Apart from dealing with them gently, the doctors must be kind to the patients. When talking them, the physician should not incorporate anything that may render him weak or helpless. He should know the differences in patient’s psychological condition and administer the proper technique that would help relieve his fear.

The forth part is that patience and tolerance which require medical professionals to follow. It entails dealing with people from people from all walks of life and it requires exercising a lot of patience and tolerance which the physician must do. The physician must tolerate patient’s manner and must abstain from reciprocating harm by refusing, for example, to treat a patient or diminish his right to be care for. Last but not least, humility: physician should be modest in his practice. He must not be arrogant or disdainful to his patient, no matter what background they come from. Rather, he should show respect to all of those who dealing with him.

Besides these qualities which doctors must have, the duties of the doctors are also important. As the doctors, they have to practice the profession to the highest level of knowledge, expertise, truthfulness, and honesty. Physicians have to contribute to improving the health services and in studying health problems in the community and propose the relevant proper solution, for example, smoking, drug addiction, road traffic accidents, and infectious diseases. Furthermore, the physician is expected to fulfill, skillfully, and proficiently in order to have a good medical service such as being a good listener to a patient’s complaints and understanding his suffering, respecting the patient’s view. This respect will persuade physician from advising the patient on his or her disease, referring the patients to other physician who can provide specialized treatment, helping the patients obtain the necessary report and information (the patients should seek the opinion of another physician in respect of his illness.), and prescribing continuously quality of medical care to patient with terminal or incurable disease until the last moment in their lives.

In short, the manner of the physician towards the patients must be sensible, by not discriminating against them such as race, pretty or ugly and rich or poor people. The importance roles of the physician should be knowledgeable and honest in his professional skill. By doing these,

Accreditation of University

 

By Noch sokhema

“… there are loads of unnoticeable advantages that lie behind this system for the universities and students to take into their consideration,” said Noch Sokhema.

 

“ACCREDITATION is the process whereby a structured programmed of learning or training enables participants to claim nationally respected certification which recognizes their achievements,” (Open College Network, Kent & Medway). Besides knowing that it improves our educational sector, we also have to know how it processes, ways to obtain it, and what are the benefits we will get from it.

According to worldwide learn (1999-2010), there are many steps in achieving accreditation, namely preparation and self-examination, peer review, visit and examination, judgment action made by accreditation organization, and continuous review. In preparation and self-examination, items as well as written reports, that represent the achievements of the institutions, are prepared to meet the standard level of accreditation organization. Moreover, peer review is also the important step of accreditation. Administrative and faculty peer visit the university in order to find the status of accreditation of that university by review vigorously on the prepared materials and the written reports. The next step is visit and examination, in which a team of peer reviewers and member of public make a visit to the institution, in the purpose of seeking quality standard. Following this, judgment action made by accreditation organization is used to examine the status of university whether it should give accreditation or not. Finally, continuous reviews is needed to review every two or three or even ten years in order to maintain the accreditation standard of the accredited institution. In this process, all steps need to be gone over again after each accreditation.

In order to become an accredited university, one must aware, not only the process, but ways to meet the requirements of accreditation organization so as to assess standard for the university. Owing to the ACC in 2010, the first requirement of the university is mission. Its purposes are to find out and determine the clarity, appropriateness and accuracy of its publicly disseminated mission. Second, Governing Structure, Management and Planning play a very fundamental role in pursuing the accomplishment by improving the quality of the university. Apart from this, the university mission, employment market and students’ needs, and so is its relevance to national development goals are needed for academic program to be updated. Besides, teaching staff must be the professionals in relation to their subject since good quality is a course of concern when providing to students and the university. What is more, things such as knowledge, competence and skill from students and student service are also put into use for the credit of the university. Next, libraries, research papers, computer labs, research stations, Internet, textbooks, etc are the kinds of teaching and learning resource that needs to adequate. After all, it supports both teaching and learning process and the quality of university. Also, adequacy must be met when considering physical facilities and other necessary equipments as well. On top of that, future and continuation of higher education program or other services depend entirely on financial management and planning, therefore it must stay under secure governance. Finally, information of the achievement of the university should be promoted so that public awareness can be raised on the development of the higher education institutions.

As far as the advantages of accreditation are concerned, it brings students good educational quality. For some reasons, students have faith in the accreditation university and believe that their time and money will not be wasted on such true knowledge. In addition, the financial aid opportunities are given to student who has enrolled the university, which has accredited by accreditation organization. In the case of student wanting to transfer course credit they have learned to new a university with new courses available for them, it is acceptable if the previous university has appropriate accreditation status. Lastly, employees from the standard university or accredited university may be wanted by employers, so learning in such university has its own benefits as well (worldwide learn 1999-2010).

In conclusion, accreditation is such a complicated process set by the accreditation organization. Therefore, obtaining it is also difficult. However, there are loads of unnoticeable advantages that lie behind this system for the universities and students to take into their consideration.

Credit System


By Khut Vanne

“….help them learn better because they have enough time to concentrate or pay attention on a few subjects…,” said Khut Vanne.

 

A CREDIT system is a systematic way of describing an educational program by attaching credits to its components. The definition of credits in higher education systems may be based on different parameters, such as student workload, learning outcomes and contact hours. (http://www.upjs.sk/en/university/education/credit-system/) Credit system is most preferred by the USA, European Union as well as other developed countries like Australia, Canada, France, Singapore, and so on.

There are many advantages of credit system in Education system. For one thing, the university which adopts such a system allows their students to choose subjects they want to do first. Hence, students feel free to learn; they have much more freedom in deciding on which subject they wish to do first and next. Some students take a few subjects per term so they have lots of free time to pre read or review the lessons. Fewer subjects mean less pressure as well as workloads. This can help them learn better because they have enough time to concentrate or pay attention on a few subjects, unlike normal education system, it is compulsory for students to learn many subjects in the same semester.

One more thing is that they can take free time to do part time job if they wish. Second, they can suspend the unwanted or difficult subjects and learn them later. This allows them to be well-prepared and ready to start these subjects later after finishing the others, while in normal education system, you are not allowed to suspend any subjects, if you wish to do so, you have to suspend for one semester or one year. This really takes time. What is more, those who achieve very satisfactory or high GPA are allowed to add the other subjects in the same term. Doing this, you, sometimes, even complete the course earlier than usual curriculum.

Another advantage comes to the duration of study. Unlike normal education system: under no circumstances can students take more than 6 years to complete the Bachelor’s degree otherwise you will not reward the certificate, the credit system does not limit the duration or length of study, which means you can still continue to do your course, regardless of duration, as long as you fulfill all the credits required by the university. Therefore, it is advantageous compared to normal education system. In addition, credit System University enables you to enroll more than once a year while it is different from normal education system-there is registration or enrollment once annually.          One more advantage is that not only can you study with the same year level peers but also with the others from different year level-year 1, 2, 3 or 4 altogether. This really helps you in sharing experiences, knowledge with many people who possess variety of education backgrounds through communicating, discussing in the class or group work and so forth. Besides, it is really helpful for those who do not satisfy with their results; they can retake the subjects and exams to achieve the results they want while another system cannot help you with this – if the result is less satisfactory, you cannot do anything to amend it but to accept it. Plus, credit system plays a vital role to help those who are busy or cannot catch up with the lessons well have more time to pre read, review or prepare for the subjects they have chosen to learn.

On the minus side, in credit system, you are still required to take the foundation subject prior to commencing the main one in next term or semester. For example, to study Macro economics, it is compulsory for you to preliminarily take Micro economics. If you fail to take it, you are not allowed to learn Macro economics in the next term. To illustrate, my boss at my work place used to share his education background to colleagues. At the very first time he went to study in Australia, he did not know much about its education system as he had studied in Cambodia with normal education system. Upon arriving and learning there, he couldn’t catch up with some lessons; as a result of which, he wanted to suspend some subjects. As Micro economics and Statistics in semester 1 were both difficult, he decided to choose one of them to suspend; that was Microeconomics.

However, he was not allowed to do Macroeconomics in semester 2 since he had not studied Micro economics in semester1. So this is the problem if you fail to recognize which subject is the foundation of which subject. Moreover, following credit system can also be deemed to be a waste of time. This is because it enables students to learn irrespective of duration and too much freedom on completing their course. It is ok for some students who cannot catch up with the lessons or busy doing another work; however, some lazy students will also use the same reasons as their pretexts for subject suspension. This is also a part which makes them not committed to study as they think they have choices to complete their courses while normal education system poses a strict regulation for students to conform especially on the duration of course completion.

Overall, in my point of view, the pros of credit system outweigh the cons. Therefore, I suggest that universities should adopt such a system for education system so that we all will get advantages from it as well as the improvement of education system.

Brain Drain


By Chea Vicheka

“Countries having a brain drain are losing human capital to countries having brain gain,” said Chea Vicheka.

BRAIN drain refers to depletion or loss of intellectual and technical personnel (Wikipedia, 2011). It can be simply defined as the mass emigration of technically skilled people from one country to another country.  Brain-drain can have many reasons such as political instability of a nation, lack of opportunities, health risks, insecurity, personal conflicts etc. Brain drain is a phenomenon of human capital flight which might spell outflow of human capital out of a nation. Brain drain usually occurs in developing countries including Cambodia where there are a lot of outflow of knowledge to more developed nations like the US. The emigrated intellectuals take with them pools of knowledge out of their original countries and apply in their immigrated countries. From this phenomenon, developing countries such as Cambodia, Africa, the island nations of the Caribbean and formerly Soviet Union nation are having a brain drain while America or European Union are having a brain gain.

There are two aspects for the reasons of brain drain that come from countries and individuals. In terms of countries, the reasons may include lack of opportunities, political instability, economic depression, health risk in developing countries making social environment in developed countries attractive. Rich opportunities, political stability, freedom, developed economy and better living conditions are among the factors in fostering emigration to rich nation such as America and European Union (The Gemini Geek, n.d). Brain drain is also driven by individual reasons such as family influence, i.e. overseas relatives, personal preference for exploring, ambition for an improved career, etc.

Brain drain is usually regarded as an economic cost to developing countries because the emigrants usually take with them the value of their training sponsored by their government or other organizations. The original countries experience the drainage of skilled individuals who otherwise would work to support their economy and their country. On the other hand, brain-gain is merely an opposite situation to brain-drain. Countries that gain skilled workers who migrate from developing countries are usually having a brain gain. Countries like USA, Canada and UK are having brain-gain because these nations are rich and have enough work opportunities. Moreover, they provide better facilities, incentives and life styles.

Brain drain exhausts technological and knowledge resources which reduces productivity of a nation. Developing countries must address the causes of brain drain and increase efficient use of their resources including local skilled citizens for development and growth. To hold these skilled workers at their native places, it is also important to provide them with enough work opportunities, decent living facilities, and better incentives. Those skilled workers migrate to other countries because they hope to find a better working condition suitable for their expertise, where these may not be available in their home countries. To stop this, they have to be motivated to return home where their know-how knowledge is valued.

In conclusion, countries having a brain drain are losing human capital to countries having brain gain. In addition, these countries are usually poor, under-developed or developing making the brain drain inevitable. To relieve this problem, the government should not only nurture local human resource but also retain the human capital for development purposes. Developed countries should help these countries with necessary money and resources so that they can improve and upgrade social and economic status. Brain drain is an issue that developing countries must address in order to catch up with developed nations in terms of standard of living, technology and social welfare.

Bad impact and benefit of outgoing study exchange


By Lach Dalina

“…..leading a life in a whole new world without having given any assistance from family members will also help students develop personally in terms of their self awareness, maturity and confidence.”

WHAT is outgoing study exchange? Outgoing study exchange or study abroad is the programme that enables students to continue their study abroad in a set period of time. Why should students join outgoing study exchange? Students should join this program because it aims at providing exchange students with high quality educational experiences by exposing them to different cultures and learning environments overseas. It is also aimed at promoting international friendship and introducing them to other systems of higher learning that are competitive and challenging. Students can get lots of benefits from this program. However, students may simultaneously encounter difficulties during their study.

Studying abroad serves as a window to extend students’ cultural horizons, so as a door-opening for students to mingle with others, coming from different socio-cultural backgrounds. It will not only broaden students’ academic knowledge, but it will also endow students with new perspectives about the scope of their study. In other words, students’ academic sphere has been intensified, for they are able to explore different subjects within the same field of their study, as well as, experience a new classroom environment, teaching and learning environment in particular. Additionally, leading a life in a whole new world without having given any assistance from family members will also help students develop personally in terms of their self awareness, maturity and confidence.

More importantly, studying abroad will enhance student’s employability, giving them a more competitive edge and setting them apart from other graduates in the job market. A recent survey by i-Graduate, an independent research organization, showed that around 60% of the country’s top employers indicate that experience of international study enhances employability.

Of course, studying abroad will enable students to develop their language skills amongst native speakers. Again, research shows being able to speak a foreign language will not only help them being hired, but they generally get a higher salary, comparing to other local graduates.

Beside those benefits, students will also face some difficulties during their study. Culture shock is the most challenging issue for international students. In the west, greeting may be hugging, kissing, or hand shaking. But, such everyday greeting manner in the west may embarrass the Asian students, especially the females. In some Asian countries–Islamic-practiced countries specially– touching hands is taboo, let alone hugging and kissing in public. Aside from cultural differences, food and environment, especially weather are of challenge to the international students. For example, rice is a staple food for most Asian people. But, in the western countries like America, bread is. This consequently leads to a huge dietary adjustment to be made. Those students may need sometimes to adapt to those kinds of food, and also the cold weather if they were to come from tropical countries.

In conclusion, outgoing study exchange is both of beneficial and challenged to students. However, benefits outweigh the challenges, if compared. Personally, students are strongly encouraged to apply for an outgoing study exchange since they can improve their life in terms of language skill development, degree attainment, and some other aspects related to self improvement like gaining self awareness, maturation, and confidence.

Scholarship Fraud


By Lim Dara, year-four student from IFL

“It does not just happen in America, Australia, United Kingdom, but it can also happen in poor countries, such as Cambodia…..”

 

SCHOLARSHIP fraud is a kind of illegal act which is conducted to cheat anyone related to scholarship given in order to get money or goods in return. According to the website: www.finaid.org, there are hundreds of parents and students in the United States become victims of such a crime that make them lose more than $100 million every year. It does not just happen in America, Australia, United Kingdom, but it can also happen in poor countries, such as Cambodia whenever those people involve in scholarship applying. Now that the trend is overarching, strategy possible to prevent is to first equip ourselves with the many different forms of scholarship scam and secondly ways to protect ourselves from becoming a victim of this sort of scholarship.

Scholarship scam exists in many characteristics which are very difficult to recognize. However, based on the website above, there are a few general characteristics that have happened so far. The above website mentions that one of the scam is a scholarship that never materialized. This means that the scholarship ask for payment from the students up front for some unimportant uses, but provides a little or no exchange at all. Usually, students think that they did not win the scholarship that is why they did not receive anything, such as result announcement, comment, feedback, and so on. Hence, the cheating goes on endlessly without receiving any recognition. Besides, the website continues that a scholarship for profits is also one of the scholarship scams. It is like a real scholarship, but this kind of scholarship asks you to pay from $5 to $35 to register or complete application. If the students win the scholarship, they will receive $1000 for their studying, for example. Additionally, advance-fee loan, based on the website, is another characteristic of scholarship fraud as well. The scholarship provides the students with an unusual loan which asks the students to pay money first before they receive the loan. Once the students spent their money, the promised loan never materialized. Furthermore, the website reveals that a scholarship prize should also be taken into account. Some scholarship scam sends the students a statement to tell them that they win scholarship prize. However, it will ask for some payment for taxes or anything before they could release the prize. When the students pay, nothing will they receive as exchange.

It is very annoyed and regretful if you were cheated by a scholarship scam. In order that you can avoid it successfully, you should learn some tips. Extracting from the website, there are some advices which are very useful for protecting yourself from becoming a victim of the scholarship scam. Firstly, you should remember that you will never spend much more than for a postage stamp to get the scholarship information. A legal scholarship never charges of application form or anything else. If you happen to involve in a scholarship that ask you to spend for application form or any related information, you should not continue your applying. Secondly, you should be aware of application form that asked about credit card number, bank account number, social security number, and so on. It is mistrustful because they can take the information to withdraw your money from your bank account easily. Thirdly, typing and spelling error in the information are also signs of scam. It lacks of professional appearance.

In conclusion, receiving a scholarship award is an honor. However, being a victim of scholarship scam is shameful. Thus, as an eager learner who wishes to study abroad on a scholarship, you should be aware of scholarship fraud. Being protected can be easily obtained by just following the above mentioned tips.