Thailand says Russia over military support to Cambodia

­ Kasit Piromya, Thai foreign minister,  said that Russia and other countries such as India and China assisted Cambodia during the recent military clashes at the border between the two countries.

Preah Vihear fund raising

Raising funds for supporting the military at Preah Vihear is now ubiquitous since the recent clash at the border occured. The provincial governors under the advice from the ministry of Interior organizes group to raise fund from the people in the province. Also, in the the city, the residents are asked to contribute money to the foundation. Before, the fund rasing just raised through television or radio from people who want to contribute, but now the foundation goes to people directly.  A lot of people contribute their money to the foundation. This shows the nationalism of the people. However, a small number of people now seem bored of the fund raising.

Rich and poor university guarantee the quality of education

By Sun Narin and Vorn Makara

With the increasing in privately-owned higher education institutions, especially universities in Phnom Penh, Accreditation Committee of Cambodia (ACC) is working to ensure the quality education for students since the different fee gap becomes the main concern.

According to Ministry of Education, there are around 40 institutions and universities nationwide, approximately 30 of which are private. Pen Sithol, the director of Department of Standards and Accreditation which oversees ACC, said that the growing universities indicate a good sign to education system because Cambodia is a free market, explaining that, “It can make all universities compete with each other and cement the quality, and students have choice to choose university they want.”

ACC sets all the quality education requirements for all universities, focusing on 9 standards namely mission, governing structure and management and planning, academic programs, teaching staffs, student and student services, teaching and learning resources, physical facilities, financial management and planning, and dissemination of information. In 2008, ACC evaluated all the higher institutions of learning in Phnom Penh, finding there are some five universities failing to meet the standards of quality set by ACC, according to Pen Sithol.

A few most expensive universities recently established, charge a large amount of fee including Limkokwing whose fee is at least 1700 dollars and Zaman charging average 3000 dollars per year. Some others charge high, acceptable and small fee which a number of students are skeptical that how they can grant the quality education.

However, Pen Sithol said that all the universities have the resource to set the fee, explaining that sometimes they have supportive fund from other partnership organizations, so they charge only small money.

“It does not mean that universities charging cheap fee have no quality,” but adding that in case the universities do not have other fund to support, they charge small fee which results in the limitation of facility and human resource and quality will follow that.

Being established since 2007 and recognized by ACC in 2008, Phnom Penh-based Chenla University charges students with fee ranging from 250 to 350 dollars per year comparing to the other private universities is lower. Sin Khandy, president of Chenla University, said that his university charges inexpensive price and discounts for students.

“I want to help poor students and I also guarantee the quality for them [students],” adding that his school has experienced human resource at least holding master degree, following standards and students can put their knowledge into practice, “My school has foreign sponsorship partner of Konyang University and I have capital to support everything for my school,” he said.

Asia Euro University (AEU) charges small fee the same as Chenla University. Chhoeun Savorn, vice-rector of AEU, said that the quality is also ensured by hiring experienced teaching staffs and providing enough school material.

“We have our own building unlike other university, so it can ease our spending. We also want to help students who cannot afford to study expensive university,” he said.

How Leanghor, 21, year-one student of nursing at Chenla University, said that his university charges acceptable fee comparing to other universities which cost a lot of money, adding that the quality is guaranteed for students as other universities.

“The quality is the same with experienced human resource from other expensive universities. Some universities charge a lot of fee because of their name,” he said.

Pen Sithol said that the generally universities charging expensive money have enough facilities and professional human resource, adding that it is very hard to judge which one is good or bad.

“We just match the quality of the universities to our standard. It is not dependent on the school fee, the most important is that students can absorb the knowledge from lecturers or not,” he said.

Kieng Rotana, vice-rector of Pannasastra University of Cambodia (PUC) which some 3000 students enroll annually, said that his university charges students more than 600 dollars per year and provides quality education and good student service such as human resource and various facilities.

“Our price that we charge is still low if we think about the quality. We are following international standards and we have around 85 partnership universities abroad,” he said.

Zaman University established last year and Erkan Polatdemir who is the rector of the university said that his university follows the international standards with qualified teaching staffs holding doctor degree from abroad, modern facilities and challenging curriculum.

“We charge much higher in order to provide quality education for students,” he said.

Due to the different fee charging, students who study at cheap university are wondering about their job in the future. “Generally if university is expensive, the quality is better, which can make students easy to find job after graduation,” said Hong Choeun, head of National Employment Agency (NEA), explaining that fee shows the quality and name of university.

“All universities have to strengthen the education quality for students so that they are qualified for job,” he added.

Pen Sithol said that getting jobs sometimes is not dependent on degree of universities, but it is contingent on other factors, “There is no study of students who get jobs after graduation, so it is hard to judge which one provides good quality.”

ដោយ ស៊ុន ណារិន និងវន មករា

ជា​មួយ​ការ​កើន​ឡើង​នូវ​វិទ្យា​ស្ថាន​ ​ឯក​ជន​ អប់​រំ​កម្រិត​ខ្ពស់​នៅ​ព្រះ​រា​ជា​ណា​ចក្រ​កម្ពុជា​ជា​ពិ​សេស​មាន​សា​លា​ និង​សាកលវិ​ទ្យា​ល័យ​ជា​ច្រើន​នៅ​ទី​ក្រុង​ភ្នំ​ពេញ​។​ ​តាម​​រយៈ​គណៈ​កម្មា​ធិ​ការ​ការ​ទទួល​ស្គាល់​ការ​អប់​រំ​នៅ​កម្ពុជា​​ ACC ដែល​កំពុង​ធ្វើ​ការ​ពង្រឹង​គុណ​ភាព​អប់​រំ​សម្រាប់​និស្សិត​ចាប់​តាំង​ពី​មាន​គម្លាត​នៃ​ការ​ចំ​ណាយ​ថ្លៃ​បង់​សា​លា​បាន​ក្លាយ​ជា​ការ​ព្រួយ​បារម្ភ​ចម្បង​របស់​និស្សិត​។

តាម​រយៈ​ក្រ​សួង​អប់​រំ​ ​បាន​ឲ្យ​ដឹង​ថា ​មាន​វិទ្យា​ស្ថាន​ សាកល​វិ​ទ្យា​ល័យ​ជាង​៤០​នៅ​ទូ​ទំាង​ប្រ​ទេស​ ​ក្នុង​នោះ​មាន​ប្រ​មាណ​ជា​៣០​ជា​កម្ម​សិទ្ធិ​ឯក​ជន​។​ ​លោក​ ​ប៉ែន​ ​ស៊ី​ថុល​ ប្រ​ធាន​ស្តង់​ដារ​ ​និង​ការ​ទទួល​ស្គាល់​ការ​អប់​រំ​ដែល​មើល​ការ​ត្រួត​ពិនិត្យ​ACC​ ​បាន​ឲ្យ​ដឹង​ថា ​ការ​កើន​ឡើង​ម​ហា​វិ​ទ្យា​ល័យ​គឺ​ជា​សញ្ញាណ​មួយ​ល្អ​ចំ​ពោះ​ប្រ​ព័ន្ធ​អប់រំ​ ព្រោះ​កម្ពុជា​គឺ​ជា​ទី​ផ្សារ​សេរី​។​ ​លោក​ពន្យល់​ថា​៖​ «​ខ្ញុំ​អាច​ធ្វើ​ឲ្យ​មហា​វិទ្យា​ល័យ​ទំាង​អស់​ប្រ​កួត​ប្រ​ជែង​គ្នា​ទៅ​វិញ​ទៅ​មក​ ​និង​ផ្សារ​ភ្ជាប់​ជា​មួយ​គុណ​ភាព​ ហើយ​និ​សិ្សត​មាន​ជម្រើស​ច្រើន​ក្នុង​ការ​ជ្រើស​រើស​ម​ហា​វិ​ទ្យា​ល័យ​ណា​ដែល​គេ​ចូល​ចិត្ត​»​។

ប៉ែន​​​ ​​ស៊ី​​ថុល​​​ ​ACC​ ​បាន​ឲ្យ​ដឹង​ថា​ បង្កើត​គុណ​ភាព​អប់​រំ​ទៅ​តាម​តម្រូវ​ការ​គ្រប់​ម​ហា​វិ​ទ្យា​ល័យ​ទំាង​អស់​ ​ដោយ​ផ្តោត​ទៅ​លើ​៩​ស្តង់​ដារ​ដែល​មានឈ្មោះថា​ ​គោល​បំ​ណង​ រចនា​សម្ព័ន្ធ​អភិបាល​រកិច្ច​ ​ផែន​ការ​និង​ការ​គ្រប់​គ្រង​ ​កម្ម​វិធី​សិក្សា​ ​ការ​បង្រៀន​បុគ្គ​លិក​ សេវា​កម្ម​សិស្ស​និង​និស្សិត​ ​ការ​បង្រៀន​និង​ការ​សិក្សា​ធន​ធនា​ ​ការ​សម្រួល​ផ្នែក​រូប​កាយ​ ផែន​ការ​និង​ការ​រៀប​ចំ​ហិរញ្ញ​វត្ថុ​ ​និង​ចំណុច​ចុង​ក្រោយ​​គឺ​ការ​ចែក​ផ្សាយ​ព័ត៌​មាន​។​ ​កាល​ពី​ឆ្នាំ​២០០៨​ ACC​ ​បាន​ធ្វើ​ការ​វាយ​តម្លៃ​លើ​គ្រប់​វិ​ទ្យា​ស្ថាន​អប់​រំ​កម្រិត​ខ្ពស់​នៅ​ទី​ក្រុង​ភ្នំ​ពេញ​។​ តាម​រយៈ​ការ​វាយ​តម្លៃ​នេះ​ ​បាន​រក​ឃើញ​ថា​ មាន​មហា​វិទ្យា​ល័យ​៥​បរា​ជ័យ​មិន​បាន​ទៅ​តាម​កម្រិត​ស្តង់​ដារ​នៃ​គុណ​ភាព​អប់រំ​ដែល​បង្កើត​ឡើង​ដោយ​ ​ACC។

នា​ពេល​ថ្មី​ៗ​នេះ​ មាន​សា​កល​វិ​ទ្យា​ល័យ​ដែល​មាន​តម្លៃ​ថ្លៃ​ៗ​មួយ​ចំ​នួន​តូច​ត្រូវ​បាន​បង្កើត​ឡើង​ ​ហើយ​តម្រូវ​ឲ្ស​សិស្ស​បង់​ថ្លៃ​ខ្ពស់​ ​ក្នុង​នោះ​រួម​មាន​ទំាង​ ​សា​លា​លីម​កុក​វីង​ (Limkokwing)​ ​ដែល​វា​មាន​តម្លៃ​ដល់​ទៅ​១៧០០​ដុល្លារ​ ​និង​ សា​លា​ហ្សា​ម៉ាន់​ ​(Zaman)​ គិត​តម្លៃ​ជា​ធម្យម​៣០០០​ដុល្លារ​ ​(per year or per month)?។ មហា​វិទ្យា​ល័យ​ខ្លះ​តម្រូវ​ឲ្យ​បង់​ក្នុង​តម្លៃ​ខ្ពស់​គឺ​អាច​ទទួល​យក​បាន​ ​ប៉ុន្តែ​បើ​គិត​ក្នុង​តម្លៃ​ទាប​ ប្រាកដ​ជា​មាន​សិស្ស​មួយ​ចំ​នួន​គិត​ថា​ ​តើ​ពួក​គេ​អាច​ទទួល​បាន​គុណ​ភាព​អប់​រំ​ឬ​ទេ​។

ទោះ​យ៉ាង​ណា​ក៏​ដោយ​ ​លោក​ ​ប៉ែន​​​​​ ​​​ស៊ី​​​ថុល​ ​បាន​និ​យាយ​ថា​ គ្រប់​ម​ហា​វិទ្យា​ល័យ​ទំាង​អស់​មាន​ធន​ធាន​បង្កើត​ថ្លៃ​សា​លា​។​ ​លោក​ពន្យល់​ទៀត​ថា​ ពេល​ខ្លះ​ម​ហា​វិទ្យា​ល័យ​ទំាង​នោះ​មាន​ថវិកា​ឧបត្ថម្ភ​ពី​អង្គការ​ជាដៃ​គូ​ផ្សេង​ៗ​ទៀត​។​ ដូច្នេះពួកគេគិតថ្លៃចូលរៀនក្នុងតម្លៃថោក។

លោក​បន្ត​ទៀត​ថា៖ «វា​មិន​មាន​ន័យ​ថា​ម​ហា​វិ​ទ្យា​ល័យ​គិត​តម្លៃ​ថោក​ ​មាន​គុណ​ភាព​អន់​នោះ​ទេ​»​។​ ប៉ុន្តែ​បន្ថែម​ទៀត​ថា ក្នុង​ករណី​ដែល​ថា​ម​ហា​វិ​ទ្យា​ល័យ​ទំាង​នោះ​គ្មាន​ថវិកា​ផ្សេង​ទៀត​មក​ទ្រ​ទ្រង់​។​ ពួក​គេ​គិត​ថ្លៃ​ថោក​ដែល​លទ្ធ​ផល​ចេញ​មក​ក៏​មាន​ដែន​កំ​ណត់​ ហើយ​ធន​ធាន​មនុស្ស​និង​គុណ​ភាព​ក៏​ទៅ​តាម​នោះ​ដែរ​។

សាកល​វិទ្យា​ល័យ​ចេន​ឡា​ដែល​ត្រូវ​បាន​កកើត​ឡើង​តាំង​ពី​ឆ្នាំ​២០០៧​ និង​ទទួល​ស្គាល់​ដោយ​ ​ACC​ ​នៅ​ឆ្នាំ​២០០៨​ សាកល​វិទ្យា​ល័យ​នេះ​តម្រូវ​ឲ្យ​សិស្ស​បង់​ថ្លៃ​ចាប់​ពី​២៥០​ដុល្លារ​ដល់​៣៥០​ដុល្លារ(per year or per month?)​ ​នេះ​បើ​ប្រៀប​ធៀប​ទៅ​សា​កល​វិទ្យា​ល័យ​ផ្សេង​ទៀត​ វា​នៅ​មាន​កម្រិត​ទាប​។​ ​លោក​ ​ស៊ិន​ ​ខ័ណ្ឌី​ ​សា​កល​វិទ្យា​ធិ​ការ​សា​កល​វិ​ទ្យា​ល័យ​ចេន​ឡា ​បាន​និយាយ​ថា​ ​សា​កល​វិទ្យា​ល័យ​របស់​លោក​គិត​តម្លៃ​មិន​សូវ​ថ្លៃ​ទេ​ ហើយ​ថែម​ទំាង​បញ្ចុះ​តម្លៃ​ចំ​ពោះ​និស្សិត​ទៀត​ផង​។

លោក​ ​ស៊ិន​​​ ​​ខ័ណ្ឌី​​ ​បន្ថែម​ទៀត​ថា​៖​​​ ​«​ខ្ញុំ​ចង់​ជួយ​សិស្ស​ក្រី​ក្រ​ ហើយ​ខ្ញុំ​ក៏​ធា​នា​បាន​នូវ​គុណ​ភាព​សម្រាប់​ពួក​គេ​»​។​ សា​លា​របស់​លោក​មាន​បទ​ពិ​សោធ​ធន​ធាន​មនុស្ស​យ៉ាង​ហោច​ណាស់​ក៏​មាន​ដល់​កម្រិត​ថ្នាក់​អនុ​បណ្ឌិត​​ដែរ​ ទៅ​តាម​កម្រិត​ស្តង់​ដារ​ ហើយ​សិស្ស​អាច​យក​ចំ​ណេះ​ដឹង​ទៅ​អនុវត្ត​ផ្ទាល់​។​ ​លោក​បាន​ឲ្យ​ដឹង​ទៀត​ថា​៖​ «​សា​លា​របស់​ខ្ញុំ​មាន​អ្នក​ឧបត្ថម្ភ​ជា​ដៃ​គូរ​បរ​ទេស​នៃ​សា​កល​វិ​ទ្យា​ល័យ​គុណ​យ៉ាង ​(Kongyang University)​ ហើយ​ខ្ញុំ​មាន​ដើម​ទុន​ដើម្បី​ទ្រ​ទ្រង់​គ្រប់​យ៉ាង​សម្រាប់​សា​លា​របស់​ខ្ញុំ​។

សា​កល​វិទ្យា​ល័យ​អា​ស៊ី​អឺ​រុប ​(AEU)​ គិត​ថ្លៃ​បង់​សា​លា​ថោក​ដូច​សា​កល​វិទ្យា​ល័យ​ចេន​ឡា​ដែរ​។​ ​ឈឿន​ ​​​សា​វន​ ​សា​កល​វិទ្យា​ធិ​កា​រង​ ​AEU​ ​បាន​ឲ្យ​ដឹង​ថា​ គុណ​ភាព​គឺ​ធា​នា​បាន​នូវ​គ្រូ​បង្រៀន​ដែល​មាន​បទ​ពិ​សោធ​ ​និង​ផ្តល់​សម្ភារះ​គ្រប់​គ្រាន់​ដល់​សា​លា​។ ​លោក​បាន​ឲ្យ​ដឹង​ទៀត​ថា​៖​ ​«​យើង​មាន​អ​គារ​ខ្លួន​ឯង​ ​មិន​ដូច​សា​កល​វិ​ទ្យា​ល័យ​ផ្សេង​ទៀត​ទេ​។​ ដូច្នេះ​វា​ជួយ​សម្រាល​នូវ​ការ​ចំ​​ណាយ​របស់​យើង​។​ យើង​ក៏​ចង់​ជួយ​សិស្ស​ណា​ដែល​មិន​អាច​ផ្គត់​ផ្គង់​ការ​សិក្សា​នៅ​សា​លា​ថ្លៃ​»​។

លោក​ ហ៊ូវ​​​ ​​លាង​ហោ​ ​អា​យុ​២១​ឆ្នាំ​ និស្សិត​ផ្នែក​គិ​លា​នុ​បដ្ឋា​យិ​កា​នៅ​សា​កល​វិទ្យា​ល័យ​ចេន​ឡា​ ​បាន​និ​យាយ​ថា​ ថ្លៃ​សិក្សា​នៅ​សាកល​វិទ្យា​ល័យ​នេះ​មាន​តម្លៃ​៨០០​ដុល្លារ​ប៉ុណ្ណោះ​ដែល​អាច​ទទួល​យក​បាន​បើ​ប្រៀប​ធៀប​ទៅ​នឹង​សាកល​វិ​ទ្យា​ល័យ​ផ្សេង​ទៀត​ដែល​សិស្ស​ត្រូវ​បង់​អស់​លុយ​ជា​ច្រើន​។​ ​លោក​បន្ថែម​ទៀត​ថា​ គុណ​ភាព​ត្រូវ​បាន​ធា​នា​សម្រាប់​សិស្ស​ដូច​សា​លា​ផ្សេង​ទៀត​ដែរ។

លោក​​​ ​ហ៊ូវ​ ​លាង​ហោ​ ​និ​យាយ​ថា​៖​ «​គុណ​ភាព​គឺ​ដូច​ទៅ​នឹង​សាកល​វិទ្យា​ល័យ​ផ្សេង​ទៀត​ជា​មួយ​ធន​ធាន​មនុស្ស​ដែល​មាន​បទ​ពិ​សោធ​។​ សា​កល​វិ​ទ្យា​ល័យ​ផ្សេង​ទៀត​បង់​លុយ​ថ្លៃ​ ​ព្រោះ​តែ​ឈ្មោះ​របស់​ពួក​គេ​»​។

លោក​​ ​​ប៉ែន​​​​​​ ​​​​ស៊ី​​​​ថុល​​ ​បាន​ឲ្យ​ដឹង​ទៀត​ថា​ ​ជា​ទូ​ទៅ​តម្រូវ​ឲ្យ​បង់​លុយ​ថ្លៃ ​ដោយ​សារ​សា​លា​មាន​សេ​វា​កម្ម​គ្រប់​គ្រាន់​ ​និង​ធន​ធាន​មនុស្ស​ដែល​មាន​វិជ្ជា​ជីវះ​។​ ​លើស​ពី​នេះ​ទៀត​ វា​មាន​ភាព​លំ​បាក​ណាស់​ក្នុង​ការ​សម្រេច​ថា​សា​លា​មួយ​ណា​ល្អ​ ​មួយ​ណា​មិន​សូវ​ល្អ​។

លោក​ ​ស៊ី​ថុល​ ​និ​យាយ​ទៀត​ថា​៖​ «​យើង​គ្រាន់​តែ​ប្រ​កួត​ប្រ​ជែង​កម្រិត​គុណ​ភាព​ជា​មួយ​សា​លា​ផ្សេង​ទៀត​។​ ​វា​មិន​មែន​ពឹង​ផ្អែក​តែ​ទៅ​លើ​ថ្លៃ​សា​លា​ទេ​ អ្វី​ដែល​សំ​ខាន់​បំ​ផុត​នោះ​គឺ​សិស្ស​អាច​ក្រេប​​ជញ្ជក់​នូវ​ចំ​ណេះ​ដឹង​ពី​គ្រូ​ឬ​អត់​»​។

លោក​ ​គៀង​ ​រតនា​ ​សា​កល​វិ​ទ្យា​ធិ​ការ​រង​នៃ​សាកល​វិ​ទ្យា​ល័យ​បញ្ញា​សាស្រ្ត​កម្ពុជា​ (PUC)​ ​ដែល​សា​លា​នេះ​ក្នុង​មួយ​ឆ្នាំ​ៗ​មាន​សិស្ស​ចូល​រៀន​ប្រ​មាណ​៣០០០​នាក់​។​ លោកបាននិយាយថា សាលារបស់លោកឲ្យសិស្សបង់ថ្លៃច្រើនជាង៦០០ដុល្លារក្នុងមួយឆ្នាំ និងផ្តល់នូវគុណភាពអប់រំ និងសេវាកម្មល្អដល់សិស្សដូចជាធនធានមនុស្ស និងសេវាកម្មជាច្រើនទៀត។

លោក​បាន​បន្ត​ទៀត​ថា​៖​ «​បើ​សិន​ជា​យើង​គិត​ពី​គុណ​ភាព​វិញ​តម្លៃ​ដែល​យើង​គិត​ពី​សិស្ស​គឺ​នៅ​មាន​កម្រិត​ទាប​។​ ​យើង​ធ្វើ​តាម​កម្រិត​អន្តរ​ជាតិ ​ហើយ​យើង​មាន​ដៃ​គូរ​ប្រ​ហែល​ជា​៨៥​សាកល​វិទ្យា​ល័យ​ទៀត​នៅ​ក្រៅ​ប្រ​ទេស​»​។

ចំ​ណែក​ឯ​សា​កល​វិ​ទ្យា​ល័យ​ហ្សា​ម៉ាន់​ ​ត្រូវ​បាន​បង្កើត​ឡើង​កាល​ពី​ឆ្នាំ​មុន​ ហើយ​លោក​ ​Erkan Polatdemir​ ​គឺ​ជា​សាកល​វិ​ទ្យា​ធិ​ការ​នៃ​សាកល​វិ​ទ្យា​ល័យ​នេះ​។​ លោក​និ​យាយ​ថា​ ​សា​លា​របស់​លោក​ធ្វើ​តាម​កម្រិតស្តង់​ដារ​អន្តរ​ជាតិ​ជា​មួយ​គុណ​ភាព​នៃ​ការ​បង្រៀន​ បុគ្គ​លិក​កំ​ពុង​តែ​មាន​សញ្ញា​ប័ត្រ​បណ្ឌិត​មក​ពី​បរទេស​ ​សេ​វា​កម្ម​ទាន់​សម័យ​ ​និង​ ជម្នះ​រាល់​ឧប​សគ្គ​។​ លោក​បន្ត​ទៀត​ថា​៖​ «​យើង​គិត​ថ្លៃ​ខ្ពស់​ជាង​នេះ​ទៀត​ដោយ​សារ​ផ្តល់​គុណ​ភាព​អប់​រំ​ដល់​សិស្ស​»​។

ដោយ​សារ​ការ​គិត​ថ្លៃ​ខុស​គ្នា​នៅ​តាម​សា​លា​និ​មួយ​ៗ​ សិស្ស​ដែល​សិក្សា​នៅ​សាកល​វិ​ទ្យា​ល័យ​ដែល​មាន​តម្លៃ​ថោក​កំ​ពុង​មាន​ការ​ព្រួយ​បារម្ភ​អំ​ពី​អនា​គត​ការ​ងារ​របស់​ពួក​គេ​។ ​លោក​ ​ហុង​​ ​ជឿន​ ​ប្រ​ធាន​ទី​ភ្ងាក់​ងារ​បុគ្គ​លិក​ជាតិ​ ​(NEA)​ ​បាន​ឲ្យ​ដឹង​ថា​៖​ ​«​ជា​ទូ​ទៅ ​បើ​សិន​ជា​ថ្លៃ​សា​លា​មានតម្លៃ​ថ្លៃ​គុណ​ភាព​វាក៏​បាន​ល្អ​ដែរ​ និង​ផ្តល់​ភាព​ងាយ​ស្រួល​ដល់​សិស្ស​ស្វែង​រក​ការ​ងារ​ធ្វើ​បន្ទាប់​ពី​រៀន​ចប់​»​។​ ​លោក​ពន្យល់​ទៀត​ថា​ តម្លៃ​បង្ហាញ​ពី​គុណ​ភាព​និង​ឈ្មោះ​របស់​សា​លា​។

លោក​ ​ហុង​ ​ជឿន​ ​បន្ត​ទៀត​ថា​៖​ «​សា​កល​វិ​ទ្យា​ល័យ​ទំាង​អស់​ត្រូវ​ពង្រឹង​គុណ​ភាព​អប់​រំ​សម្រាប់​សិស្ស​ ​ដូច្នេះ​ពួក​គេ​គ្រប់​គ្រាន់​ចំ​ពោះ​ការ​ងារ​»​។

ប៉ែន​​​​​​​ ​​​​ស៊ី​​​​ថុល​ ​បាន​ឲ្យ​ដឹង​ទៀត​ថា​ ការ​ទទួល​បាន​ការ​ងារ​ធ្វើ ​ពេល​ខ្លះ​មិន​អា​ស្រ័យ​លើ​សញ្ញា​ប័ត្រ​របស់​សា​លា​ទេ​ ​ប៉ុន្តែ​វា​អា​ស្រ័យ​លើ​វិ​ស័យ​ផ្សេង​ៗ​ទៀត​។​ ​លោក​បន្ត​ទៀត​ថា​៖​ «​យើង​មិន​បាន​សិក្សា​ទៅ​លើ​សិស្ស​ទទួល​បាន​ការ​ងារ​ធ្វើ​បន្ទាប់​ពី​បញ្ចប់​ការ​សិក្សា​ទេ​។​ ដូច្នេះ​លំ​បាក​ណាស់​ក្នុង​ការ​វិ​និ​ច្ឆ័យ​ថា​ ​សា​លា​មួយ​ណា​ផ្តល់​គុណ​ភាព​ល្អ​»​។​ PV/Lift

Land Conflict and Mass Communication Theory

By SUN Narin

 

LAND dispute is a heat and persistent issue in Cambodia since the nation’s government provided economic land concession and development areas to the local and foreign investors, which has caused hundreds of people being affected and replaced from their living area. According to the NGO Forum on Cambodia’s report, 236 land dispute cases occurred in 2009 and 81 cases happened in the five months early 2010.

In order to develop Phnom Penh capital, the government has replaced people from the development area though they are not satisfied with the compensation solution. As a result, they do the protests and demonstration to find fair solution, but nothing can be tackled and they also were, in some cases, forcefully replaced and beaten by the police. Roughly 85 demonstrations were staged by the land-grabbing victims in Phnom Penh in the first half of 2010, according to local rights group Adhoc official. The demonstrations and violent actions are always seen in few independent newspapers– the Phnom Penh Post and the Cambodia Daily– and broadcast by few foreign-supported radio stations such as Voice of America (VOA) and Radio Free Asia (RFA). On the other hand, the land-relevant news piece of demonstration or protests have never been covered on television.

It is obviously true that all the television stations in Cambodia are in favor of government, following the government’s policy by covering only government’s attainment, not news piece concerning government’s negative points, as the case of people’s protests for land solution and police’s violent action on the victims exemplifies. I have conducted a survey among a hundred university students in Phnom Penh and the result dictates that 84 percent of students say that the news program on televisions is biased to the government. Applying Maxwell McCombs and Donald Shaw’s agenda-setting theory which is the idea of the creation regarding news piece of public awareness and concern of salient issues by the news media, the television owners set kinds of news for people to know by broadcasting only news that they want people to know; they do not reveal the information pertaining to government’s negative points to specific situation, for instance people’s protests of land dispute.

In addition to agenda setting theory, developmental media theory of Denis McQuail (1987), a normative theory calling for government and media to work in partnership to ensure that media assist in the planned beneficial development of the country, is used in the land issue. This theory argues that until a nation is well established and its economic development well under way, media must be supportive rather than critical of government (J. Baran and K. Davis). To illustrate this with the land case, all television stations work to promote government’s achievement and do not view land protests for the public because they may find that this land protest can make people aware that the government is not kind to people at all. However, it seems, for practice in media in Cambodia, that Cambodian journalists promote the government due to the government’s influence on them such as money and power, not based on the idea of the theory at all. We can see clearly that newspapers, radios, especially televisions are media tool used by political people to promote their policies, not criticizing government or disclosing negative points of the leaders to the public. To sum up the above-mentioned description, most of newspapers, radios and televisions owners use agenda-setting theory along with the developmental media theory to view the land conflict for the public.

In my opinion, agenda-setting theory must not be applied in Cambodia because the country is democratic, so people have rights to access and be aware of every situation and a variety of topics related to the country both positivity and negativity. The media owners should not set topics for people to know, they, in stead, should tell a variety of topics to the public. Regarding land dispute, social responsibility of press is perfectly applicable to the country as the theory argues that journalists have to answer society’s need for truth, provide an open and diverse debate on public issues, and honest updates of current events. The theory also shows that the journalists should accept and fulfill certain obligations to society and they should be accountable to society.

In addition, journalists have to act as a watchdog, the idea of professionalization, for the people to serve the public needs, meaning that they have to let people know all kinds of news both positivity and negativity of government; people will know how the government is leading the country, what the nation’s development is and what government is doing to people since they are the people who vote for the government. Due to the fact that Cambodia is a developing country, developmental theory is not applicable to the country. Through my observation, the country’s development is slow; leading system has not been good yet and there are still a lot of negative points of government to solve, so media should criticize the government for a better change. Concerning land dispute, media, especially televisions should view demonstrations and protests to the public so that they know about the situation in the country. Moreover, the government will do whatever they want without considering opposition ideas if there is no criticism.

Responding to the media developmental media theory, U.S journalists have been critical of this view, believing that it is an updated version of authoritarian theory and that media should have never surrender the power to criticize government policies, even if voicing those criticism risks causing them to fail (J. Baran and K. Davis). According to the survey that I have done with 100 university students, 81 percent of students say that television need should criticize the government and 79 percent of students say that television stations should view demonstration, protests and violent actions of land conflict.

The opponent raising the idea that professionalization and social responsibility theory cannot be practiced in Cambodia’s media since the extremely powerful influence and media structure in Cambodia. However, as a democratic country and for better development, the journalists have to struggle against these impediments.

In conclusion, media in Cambodia are not in good condition and now agenda-setting and developmental media are not applicable for the press. I think professionalization and social responsibility theory can develop media system leading country to development.

Preah Vihear Foundation in Pursat

By Sun Narin

Due to the recent clash between Cambodian and Thai soldiers at the border of Preah Vihear, Cambodia’s government has started to raise fund to support the soldiers at the border. Now we can see that fund has been raised through televisions and other kinds of media. In Pursat province, under the advice from the ministry of Interior, the provincial governor issued a statement to allow all the relevant institutions to collect fund from the people for the soldiers, which shows the nationalism.

The fund raising starts from the six to the twelve and today raising is 3478100 riels and 61 dollars.

អុជផាវចូលឆ្នាំចិន

សាលាក្រុងភ្នំពេញបានចេញបំរាមមិនអោយប្រជាជននៅទីក្រុងភ្នំពេញមានការដុតផាវក្នុងឳកាសបុណ្យចូលឆ្នាំចិន ហើយអាជីវករនៅ

តាមទីផ្សារនានាក៏មិនអនុញ្ញាតិអោយលក់ផាវដែរ។ ទោះបីជាយ៉ាងណាក៏ដោយ នៅតាមបណ្តាខេត្តគ្មានការហាមឃាត់នោះទេ ដោយ

ប្រជាជនអាចបន្លឺសម្លេងផាវនៅតាមផ្ទះរបស់ពួកគេនៅថ្ងៃសែន ហើយការឡកមុងសាយ ក៏មានការអុជផាវជាធម្មតាដូចឆ្នាំមុនៗ។

ឧទាហរណ៍ នៅខេត្តពោធិ៍សាត់ ផ្ទះណាដែលសែន តែងតែមានការអុជផាវ។

survey on television news

I have conducted a survey among a hundred university students in Phnom Penh and the result dictates that 84 percent of students say that the news program on television is biased to the government.

–          81 percent of students say that television need should criticize the government.

–          79 percent of students say that television stations should view demonstration, protests and violent actions of land conflict.