ខ្យង ខ្ចៅក្លាយជាមុខម្ហូបពេញនិយមសម្រាប់ប្រជាជន

ដោយ ស៊ុន ណារិន

ប្រទេសកម្ពុជាសំបូរទៅដោយទន្លេ ស្ទឹង បឹង បួរ ដែលជាប្រភពដ៏សំខាន់​របស់​មច្ឆា​ជាតិ តែឥឡូវ គេសង្កេតថាប្រភពទឹកទាំងអស់នោះ សំបូរទៅដោយខ្ចៅ

ខ្យង ជាច្រើន។ ដោយសារតែភាពសំបូរនៃសត្វខ្យង គួបផ្សំជាមួយឪជារសដ៏

ឆ្ងាញ់នៃសាច់ខ្យង ដែលជាទីពេញនិយមរបស់ប្រជាជន ជាពិសេសអ្នកនៅ​ទីក្រុងភ្នំពេញ ធ្វើអោយការលក់ខ្យង ខ្ចៅមានការកើនឡើង។

ម៉ៅ ស្រីញាញ់ អាយុ ៤០ឆ្នាំ ជាអ្នកលក់ខ្យងនៅនៅភូមិព្រែកថី ឃុំរកាខ្ពស់ ស្រុកស្អាង ខេត្តកណ្តាល បាននិយាយថា គាត់ទើបតែបានប្រកបមុខរបរ​លក់​ខ្យង​នេះបានជាងមួយឆ្នាំ ហើយក្នុងមួយថ្ងៃគាត់​យក​​ខ្យង​មក​​លក់ចំនួន ៥០ ទៅ ៦០គីឡូ​ក្រាម លើកលែង​តែថ្ងៃ សៅរ៍ និងអាទិត្យ គាត់យកមកលក់រហូត​ដល់​ជិត ១០០គីឡូ ព្រោះវាលក់ដាច់ជាងថ្ងៃធម្មតា។

គាត់បានបន្ថែមថា៖ “ ពេលខ្លះរកខ្យងលក់ពុំបាន ព្រោះមានម៉ូយនៅភ្នំពេញ ជាពិសេសម្ចាស់ភោជនីយដ្ឋានមកយកជាប្រចាំ ម្តង ២០ទៅ៣០គីឡូ”។

ទោះបីជាអ្នកមីងលក់ខ្យងដាច់ជាប្រចាំក៏ដោយ ប៉ុន្តែអ្នកមីងនៅតែមានការ

ព្រួយបារម្ភចំពោះជីវភាពគ្រួសារ ពីព្រោះវាមិនទាន់បានបំពេញជីវភាពគ្រួសារ

នៅឡើយទេ។

គាត់បាននិយាយដោយទឹកមុខមាំថា៖ “ នេះគ្រាន់តែជាការងារបណ្តោះអាសន្ន

ទេ ដោយសារតែខ្ញុំគ្មានការងារធ្វើ ហើយខ្ញុំរកប្រាក់ចំនូលបានតែម៉ាហូបៗ​ទេ”។

គាត់បានបន្តថា គាត់បានយកខ្យងទាំងនោះមកពីភូមិក្រាំងយ៉ូវ ដែលមានបឹង

សំបូរទៅដោយខ្ចៅ ខ្យង ជាពិសេសនៅរដូវវស្សា ពេលដែលមានភ្លៀង។

អ្នកមីង ផៃ ង៉ែត អាយុ ៤៧ឆ្នាំជាអ្នកលក់ខ្យងនៅ​ភូមិដដែលនោះបាន​មាន​ប្រសាសន៍​​​ថា គាត់បានប្រកបមុខរបរនេះយូរមកហើយ គាត់លក់អស់ ៧០ ទៅ

៨០ គីឡូ ក្នុងមួយថ្ងៃ ដោយគាត់មានម៉ូយមកទិញដល់កន្លែងយកទៅវៀត​ណាម ម្តង ​៣០ទៅ ៤០គីឡូ ហើយវាមានតម្លៃពី២៥០០រៀល ទៅ ៣០០០​រៀល ក្នុងមួយគីឡូក្រាម។

គាត់បាននិយាយថា គាត់លក់ខ្យងគ្រប់ប្រភេទ ដូចជា ខ្យងគូថទាល (ខ្យងទន្លេ)

ខ្យងអាច់ម៌សេះ(ខ្យងស្រែ) និងខ្យងគូថស្រួច ឬខ្យងហោង(ខ្យងបឹង) ដែលគាត់

យកមកពីបឹងទួលក្រសាំង នៅជិតភូមិរបស់គាត់។

គាត់មានប្រសាសន៍ថា ប្រជាជនចូលចិត្តញាំខ្យង ដោយពួកគេយកខ្យងទៅ

ច្នៃធ្វើម្ហូបជាច្រើនមុខដូចជា ស្ងោរ ឆាគ្រឿង ការី អាមុក និងជាពិសេសស៊ុប

ខ្យង ដែលកំពុងតែពេញនិយម។ នៅពេលដែលគេជិះកាត់ទីនេះ គេតែងតែ

ឈប់ឡាន និងម៉ូតូដើម្បីទិញខ្យង។

គាត់បានបន្តថា ៖ “ វាអត់គ្រប់គ្រាន់ទេសម្រាប់គ្រួសារ ព្រោះខ្ញុំមានកូនច្រើន

ដល់ទៅ ៨នាក់។​ ប្តីរបស់ខ្ញុំត្រូវតែរកត្រីបន្ថែមដើម្បីផ្គត់ផ្គង់ជីវភាពគ្រួសារ

អោយបានគ្រប់គ្រាន់”។

អ្នកមីង ឡេង ចត អាយុ ៤០ឆ្នាំ ជាអ្នករកខ្យងមកលក់ បានមានប្រសាសន៍ថា

គាត់បានយកខ្យងទាំងនោះ មកពី បឹងក្រាំងយ៉ូវ បឹងអង្គបែកចេក​ បឹងទួល​ក្រសាំង ​និងបឹងផ្សេងៗទៀតនៅតាខ្មៅ ហើយក្នុងមួយថ្ងៃគាត់រកបាន ៤០ ទៅ

៥០ គីឡូ ដើម្បីចែកទៅអ្នកលក់តូចៗ តទៀត ដោយគាត់លក់ក្នុងមួយគីឡូតម្លៃ

២០០០ រៀល។

សារធាតុអាសេនិកក្នុងទឹកអណ្តូងអាចបណ្តាលអោយមានជម្ងឺ មហារីក

ដោយ ស៊ុន​ ណារិន

ប្រជាជនខ្មែរនៅតាមជនបទដាច់ស្រយាលជាច្រើនមិនទាន់បានប្រើប្រាស់ទឹក

ស្អាត និងសុវត្ថិភាពនៅឡើយទេ។ អណ្តូង ត្រពាំង បឹង ស្ទឹង និងទន្លេ ជាប្រភព​ទឹក​ដ៏សំខាន់របស់ពួកគេយកទៅប្រើប្រាស់ប្រចាំថ្ងៃ ដូចជា បោកគក់ ងូត ដាំស្ល និងទទួល​ទាន​​ជា​ដើម ហើយទឹកអណ្តូង ជាប្រភពមួយដែលប្រជាជន​នៅស្រុក​ស្រែ និង​ជនបទ​និយមប្រើ​ និងគិតថាមានសុវត្ថិភាពសំរាប់ពួក​គេ។​ ប៉ុន្តែ ថ្មីៗនេះ មានប្រជាជនជាច្រើនដែលរស់​នៅ​តាម​ដង​ទន្លេ​បាសាក់ និង​មេគង្គ​ កំពុង​ប្រើប្រាស់ទឹកអណ្តូងដែលមានសារធាតុ​ពុល​អាសេនិក ដែល​អាចបណ្តាលអោយមានជម្ងឺផ្សេងៗ ដូចជារម៉ាស់​ស្បែក រាក​រូស តម្រងនោម និងជាពិសេសរោគសញ្ញាមួយដែលគេសង្ស័យថាជាជម្ងឺមហារីក  ក្រោយពីពិសាទឹកអណ្តូងមានជាតិអាសេនិករយៈពេលយូរ។

លោក ម៉ៅ សារាយ ប្រធាននាយកដ្ឋានផ្គត់ផ្គង់ទឹក បានអោយដឹងថា មានខេត្ត​ចំនួន៧ដែលកំពុងរងផលប៉ះពាល់នៃការប្រើប្រាស់ទឹកអណ្តូងមានជាតិ

អាសេនិក តែមិនមានន័យថា កើតឡើងទូទាំងខេត្តនោះទេ គឺមានតែ១៦០៧ ភូមិតាមបណ្តោយទន្លេមេគង្គ ដៃទន្លេមេគង្គមួយចំនួន ទន្លេបាសាក់ និង​ដៃ​ទន្លេសាបនៅខេត្តកំពង់ឆ្នាំង។

លោកបានបញ្ជាក់ថា មានប្រជាជនប្រហែលជា ៥០៧០០០នាក់កំពុងប្រើប្រាស់

អណ្តូងទឹកដែលក្នុងនោះប្រជាជនពី១០ម៉ឺនទៅ១៥ម៉ឺននាក់កំពុងប្រើប្រាស់

ទឹកអណ្តូងដែលមានជាតិអាសេនិកលើសស្តង់ដាជាតិ។

ខេត្តកណ្តាល ព្រៃវែង និងកំពង់ចាមដែលប្រឈមមុខនឹងហានិភ័យ​ខ្ពស់ជាង​គេ ហើយប្រជាជនក្នុងខេត្តកំពង់ឆ្នាំង ក្រចេះ និងកំពង់ធំ មានកម្រិតហានិភ័យ

មធ្យម។

លោកបានលើកពីសភាពជម្ងឺនេះថា វាធ្វើអោយមានស្នាមអុចៗ និងដំបៅនៅ

លើខ្លូន និងដៃជើង ហើយវានឹងអាចក្លាយជាដំបៅគ្រើមដែលមានលក្ខណៈដូច

មហារីកស្បែក។នជាតិអាសេនិករយៈពេលយូរ។

លោកបានសង្កត់ធ្ងន់ថា៖ “ ជម្ងឺស្បែកដែលកើតមកពីការបរិភោគទឹកអណ្តូង​មានជាតិអាសេនិកគឺជា“ជម្ងឺសង្ស័យ “មិនទាន់ចាត់ទុក​ជាជម្ងឺមហារីក​នៅ​ឡើយ​ទេ ព្រោះយើង​មិន​ដឹងថា តើវាកើតឡើងដោយ​សារការ​បរិភោគ​ទឹក​​អណ្តូងដែលមានជាតិ​អាសេនិកហ្នឹង ឬកើតដោយមេរោគអ្វីផ្សេង តែឥឡូវក្រសួងសុខាភិបាលកំពុងវិនិច្ឆ័យរោគអោយបានច្បាស់លាស់”។

លោកបានបញ្ជាក់ថា “អណ្តូងណាមានកំហាប់អាសេនិក​លើសពី ៥០មីក្រូ​ក្រាមក្នុងមួយលីត្រ(៥០ភីប៊ី) ប្រជាជនមិនអាចផឹក និងដាំស្លបានទេ តែអាចបោក​គក់​ខោអាវបាន”។

មន្ទីរពិសោធន៍ និងស្រាវជ្រាវរបស់ធនធានអភិវឌ្ឍន៍អន្តរជាតិ កម្ពុជា បាន

ប្រមាណកាលពីឆ្នាំ២០០៩ថា មានមនុស្សប្រហែល ១០ម៉ឺននាក់ នៅក្នុង​ខេត្ត​កណ្តាល កំពុងតែប្រើប្រាស់ និងផឹកទឹកដែលមានសារធាតុអាសេនិកយ៉ាង

ហោចណាស់ក្នុងអំឡុងពេលណាមួយក្នុងមួយឆ្នាំ។

លោក នូ យន អនុការិយាល័យថែទាំ សុខភាពជនបទ របស់មន្ទីរអភិវឌ្ឍន៍

ជនបទ ខេត្តកណ្តាល បានមានប្រសាសន៍ថា នៅខេត្តកណ្តាលមានអណ្តូងលូ

ចំនួន ៦៨៦២ និង២០៩៣៥ អណ្តូងស្នប់ ដែលក្នុងនោះមាន ១៧៦៧១ ត្រូវ​បាន​ធ្វើតែស្ត ហើយមាន៧៦៣៥អណ្តូងដែលមានផ្ទុកសារជាតិអាសេនិក។

លោកបានសម្តែងការព្រួយបារម្ភថា “ ប្រជាជនស្ទើរទាំងភូមិព្រែកឬស្សី ឃុំ កំពង់កុងស្រុកកោះធំ កំពុងតែជួបប្រទះនឹងរោគសញ្ញាសា្នមកំពិកកំពកលើដៃ និងស្បែកឡើងក្រែក ដែលត្រូវបានសន្និដ្ឋានថា ជាជម្ងឺមហារីកបណ្តាល មក ពី សារធាតុអាសេនិក”។

វឿន វីន អាយុ ១៧ឆ្នាំ នៅភូមិព្រែកឬស្សី ដែលកំពុងតែមានជម្ងឺដោយសារ

ជាតិអាសេនិកនេះ បាននិយាយថា៖‹‹ ខ្ញុំកើតពេញដៃ ជើង និងខ្លួន វាចេះតែ ឈឺឆ្កាៗ ក្រហាយ ពេលត្រូវកំដៅថ្ងៃ››។

អ្នកមីង ឃុត ង៉ាន់ជឺ អាយុ ៥១ នៅភូមិព្រែកឬស្សីនេះដែរ បានមានប្រសាសន៍

ថា បងប្រុស និងក្មួយគាត់បានស្លាប់ដោយសារជម្ងឺនេះកាលពីឆ្នាំមុន។

ពួកគាត់ទាំងពីរចេញស្នាមពេញខ្លួន ហើយគាត់ក្រហាយពេញខ្លួន រាក ក្អួត

ចេញឈាម ហើមពោះ ដើរមិនរួច។

អ្នកមីងបានបញ្ជាក់ថា ៖‹‹​ពួកគាត់ទាំងពីរនាក់បានទៅពេទ្យ ហើយពេទ្យថា ជើងគាត់កើតមហារីក ត្រូវតែកាត់ចោល››។

អ្នកមីង ឃុន យឿន អាយុ ៥៥ឆ្នាំ រស់នៅភូមិ ភូមិធំ ឃុំ ភូមិធំ ស្រុក កៀន

ស្វាយ ខេត្តកណ្តាល បាននិយាយថា បន្ទាប់ពីអណ្តូងរបស់គាត់ត្រូវបានត្រួត

ពិនិត្យដោយក្រុមជំនាញយូនីសេហ្វ គាត់បានឈប់ប្រើប្រាស់ទឹកអណ្តូង

ពីព្រោះវាមានជាតិអាសេនិក និងកាបូន ហើយគាត់ប្រើប្រាស់ទឹកម៉ាស៊ីនជំនួស

វិញ។

គាត់បាននិយាយទាំងភ្ញាក់ផ្អើលថា​​ “ខ្ញុំមិនដែលដឹងថា ផឹកទឹកអណ្តូងបណ្តាល

អោយកើតជម្ងឺមហារីកទេ គ្រាន់តែដឹងថា វាអាចកើតរម៉ាស់ និងជម្ងឺរាករូស”។

លោកយាយ សេង យ៉ាន់ អាយុ ៦៦ឆ្នាំ ជាអ្នកស្រុកនៅភូមិយូបាត ឃុំក្បាល

កោះ ស្រុកកៀន​ស្វាយ ខេត្តកណ្តាល បានមានប្រសាសន៍ថា​ “មុនពេលអណ្តូង

ខ្ញុំត្រូវបានធ្វើតេស្ត ខ្ញុំបាន​ប្រើប្រាស់ទឹកអណ្តូងនេះសម្រាប់បោកគក់ ងូត ចំអិន

ម្ហូប និងផឹកជាដើម”។

គាត់បានបន្ថែមថា “ កូនចៅខ្ញុំមានជម្ងឺរាករូស ពិបាកបត់ដៃបត់ជើង ហើយ

ឥឡូវនេះ ខ្ញុំប្រើប្រាស់វា សម្រាប់តែបោកគក់ លាងដៃ ជើងតែប៉ុណ្ណោះ ”។

លោក ឆន សុវន មេភូមិព្រែកឬស្សីបានអោយដឹងថា មានមនុស្ស ២៦០នាក់

ដែលកំពុងកើតជម្ងឺនេះ ហើយ ៦នាក់បានស្លាប់។

លោក សារាយបានមានប្រសាសន៍ថា ឥឡូវនេះក្រសួងសុខាភិបាលបានចុះ

ទៅអប់រំប្រជាពលរដ្ឋ​កុំអោយគាត់ប្រើប្រាស់ទឹកអណ្តូងដែលមានជាតិពុល

ហើយក្រសួងអភិវឌ្ឍន៍ជនបទ អង្គការយូនីសេហ្វ សហការជាមួយអង្គការ

ពាក់ព័ន្ធ កំពុងតែផ្តល់ប្រភពទឹកទី២ ដល់ប្រជាជន ដូចជា អាងត្រងទឹកភ្លៀង

អាងចំរោះទឹកតាមគ្រួសារ និងប្រព័ន្ធចែកចាយទឹកខ្នាតតូច ហើយលាបពណ៌

ក្រហមលើអណ្តូងណាមានសារជាតិអាសេនិក ដោយអោយគាត់ប្រើប្រាស់

សម្រាប់តែបោកគក់ខោអាវផ្សេងៗ។

គួរបញ្ជាក់ថា របាយការណ៍មួយរបស់អ្នកវិទ្យាសាស្រ្តអាមេរិក៣នាក់ដែល

បានចេញផ្សាយនៅក្នុងខែឧសភា ឆ្នាំ បានអោយដឹងថា មានប្រជាជនជាង

១០០លាននាក់នៅក្នុ្ងងប្រទេសកម្ពុជា បង់ក្លាដែស ចិន ឥណ្ឌា ប៉ាគីស្ថាន និង

វៀតណាម ដែលបណ្តាលអោយមនុស្សស្លាប់រាប់ពាន់នាក់ជារៀងរាល់ឆ្នាំ។

Compulsive and compulsory

Compulsive and compulsory These two words are both adjectives, and they are both related to the verb ‘compel’, which means to force someone to do something. However, the two adjectives do describe different things, and do have slightly different meanings. If something is compulsory, it is something that must be done because of the law, or because someone orders you to do it. For example: • In China it is compulsory to register a new born baby with the local police. • In England, there are 11 years of compulsory education for children. • At the moment, as a result of the financial crisis, many companies are reducing their size by making compulsory redundancies. In contrast, we use compulsive to describe someone’s behaviour. It means that it is very hard for that person to stop doing something. For example, someone may be a ‘compulsive’ eater, which means that he or she cannot control their eating habits; they eat all the time, even when they are not hungry. In general, we use compulsive with behaviour that we think is negative, or which is the result of psychological problems. So, there are ‘compulsive’ eaters, ‘compulsive’ gamblers and ‘compulsive’ liars. There is one other use of the word compulsive, which is slightly different. We can describe a book as ‘compulsive’ reading, or a film as ‘compulsive’ viewing. This means that it is so good that you cannot stop reading or watching it. Interestingly, we can also say that a book is a ‘compulsory’ read, and this means that the book is a very important one and everyone should read it. Students at university may get a reading list for their course, and some of the books will be ‘compulsory’ reading, while others may be optional. Obviously, the books in the compulsory category are the ones that the lecturers think the students must read.

Gut and guts

Gut and guts The basic meaning of gut is the body organ through which food passes from your stomach, which is more often called your intestine. In the plural form, guts, it means the intestine and other organs inside your body, including your stomach. With regard to the example you have seen in a health magazine, when they say ‘lose your gut’ they mean lose the fat around your stomach. In particular, this often refers to men, especially if they drink too much beer and eat too many chips. However, we also use guts to refer to courage or bravery. If we say that someone has the ‘guts to do something’, then they have the courage to do it. For example: • Only Sarah had the guts to tell the boss that his idea was a bad idea. This means that everyone else in the office was too scared to tell the boss he was wrong. Only Sarah had the guts to do it. In fact, we can say that the other people in the office were ‘gutless’; they did not have the courage or determination needed to talk directly to the boss. We also talk about ‘gut reactions’ or ‘gut feelings’. These are feelings you have when you are sure that you are right or correct, but you cannot give a reason for those feelings. You do not have a logical reason for why you feel something is correct, but you are certain that it is correct. For example: • I had a gut feeling that Simon was lying to me about the money, but I couldn’t say anything because I didn’t have any proof. Lastly, we also use the word ‘gutted’ to say that we are really disappointed by something. For example: • I was gutted when Manchester United lost the football match against Chelsea.

Bored and boring

Bored and boring ‘Bored’ and ‘boring’ can be used as adjectives, but they describe things in different ways. I shall begin by giving two examples: • I feel bored because this TV programme is boring. • I am frightened because this film is frightening. In both of those examples, I had certain temporary feelings – I was bored and I was frightened. What were the causes of those feelings? Well, the TV programme was boring and the film was frightening. These ‘-ing’ adjectives describe the qualities of something, whereas the ‘-ed’ adjectives describe a temporary state or feeling, which is caused by something. If I stop watching the film, I won’t be frightened any longer, but the film is still a frightening film. We can see this difference between a temporary feeling and a permanent quality if we look at the words you asked about – boring and bored. Here are two examples: • I don’t like David. I think he is boring. • Oh, I’m bored. Let’s go out and do something fun. In the first example, I don’t like David because he is boring, and this is a permanent characteristic or quality of his. In my opinion, he was boring yesterday, he is boring today, and he will be boring tomorrow. However, in the second example, I have a temporary feeling – I am bored – and if we do something fun I will not have that feeling anymore.

“My Role in Creating a Peaceful World”

Human beings do desire to live in a world of peace. No one wants to live in a world of war and tragic disasters killing and causing them to live under the miseries and agonies. 100-year-ago world was unlike the present world. In the past, the world experienced several tremendously affected wars such as the World War I, World War II, and as well as the Cold War which claimed mass lives of people and ruined everything. But the world, now, is highly likely to be safe and peaceful thanks to the absence of war. However, a substantial number of people are still afraid that the world will be turned into the battlefield and unsafe place due to the current controversial ideas, competitions among the world’s superpowers and continuous conflicts between the world’s countries. I have some important perspectives towards peaceful world. As far as we know, the world’s superpower countries such as the United States, Russia, China, Britain and France strive to compete with one another in terms of nuclear weapons. They always want to bring the world under control by wielding weapons of mass destruction (WMDs) to threaten the world. Our world, therefore, will be peaceful if it becomes nuclear-free. Furthermore, non-ideological challenge is of crucial importance to peaceful world. Cold War came as there was the ideological conflict between Russia and the United States. It is perfectly clear that the democracies like the United States do not get along well with Russia, China, and North Korea, the communists. Democracies are generally more prosperous, better governed, less likely to wage war against their neighbors than non-democratic states. Shortages of food leave a huge number of dead people, which leads to the unsafe world. Starvation can transform humankind into wild animals and cause people to commit theft, robbery and killing. World’s poverty eradication is also a solution to safe world. Peaceful world depends heavily on not only the absence of war, ideological harmony, and poverty eradication, but also environmental protection. We are mutually reliant on environment and it has a great influence on us. Environmental problems including natural disasters claim millions of people’s lives, which concerns the world. Besides, a sense of respecting, understanding, helping, non-discriminating each other irrespective of race, religion and living in one family also leads harmonious world. Each country pays a respect to each other’s territorial sovereignty and does not invade the other countries. Peace cannot be kept by force; it can only be achieved by mutual understanding. Also, the world should follow the culture of helping each other in order to make a better world. As a youth, peace can be brought to the world by several means. Educated youths are very important to help make peace. We are well educated and capable of doing something useful for the society in various ways. For example, we can become a peaceful leader of our country and then we will have an opportunity to find peace for our nation as well as the world. As a peaceful leader, we are able to tackle the world’s issues such as nuclear, poverty and environmental problems. Moreover, we are able to teach our next generation how to become a good and peaceful person, tell them about the adverse effects of war, advantages of peace and how to work out the problems peacefully, how to be persistent and tolerant. Peace building starts from each individual. Respecting, understanding, helping and loving each other are a good deed to maintain peace. If we respect and understand each other, we will have no conflict. If we help and love each other, we will have more friends. What is more, religion plays a key role in bringing peace to the world. Every religion is good for people and makes us feel calm and live peacefully. No religion encourages people to kill and be in conflict with each other. . If we follow religion properly, we will be on the right track towards the peace. Race, religion, nationality, sex, and color nondiscrimination is also a key element to creating a pacific world. It is not difficult to seek and build peace because it is in the hand of people. They can make the world harmonious one, but they can also cause the world to be at war. When they become peaceful in themselves, they will become people who can live peacefully with others. Everybody expects to live a life of peace and development. All human beings in the world must think that they are in the same boat, having to promote the values of peace and prevent war from happening. . We are positively sure that our world will remain stable and at peace if all the countries across the world cooperate with one another and make strenuous effort to help pacify the world.

How does water quality affect human health?

There can be no life without water. Human beings depend heavily on water for survival. They, for example, do not eat food for several days, but cannot survive without drinking water. The use of water includes water for drinking, cooking, bathing, washing and other purposes. Today, 1.1 billion people lack access to an improved water resource and over three million people, mostly children, die annually from water-related diseases (UNICEF, 2008). Therefore, it is obvious that water quality is of crucial importance to human health. Developed countries always take heed of the consumption of clean water. Unlike developing and least developed countries, most people drink and make use of tainted and unboiled water. And some countries, especially South Africa have no access to water. Water quality refers to the basic and physical characteristics of water that determine its suitability for life or for human uses. It is perfectly clear that water quality has tremendous effects on human health both in the short term and in the long term. Short-term impacts of water quality refer to the sudden or in-day consequences of drinking and consuming water. Unsanitary water, especially contaminated and unboiled water containing a number of viruses and harmful germs can be detrimental to human health. Drinking contaminated water, in medical term, may cause water-related diseases including diarrhea, bacterial dysentery, cholera, typhoid and many other contagious illnesses. For instance, diarrhea brings about the loss of both water which leads to dehydration and, in some cases, of live. Cholera, watery disease and one of the Cambodia’s top killers can kill people in days, or even hours if they are not treated in a timely manner. There were 128 watery disease deaths between mid-November in 2009 and mid-February in 2010 thank to not using clean water (Seiff & Chhorn, February, 2010). The numbers of Cholera cases are increasing and severe, and there are 320 severely sick Cholera children, according to Children’s Hospitals Kantha Bopha (Richner, February, 2010). River, lake, pond and well water which consists of harmful substances causes people to have a diarrhea and stomachache. This always happens in the countryside or in the areas where poor people have no access to safe drinking water and are oblivious of the drawbacks of unsafe water. As far as we know, the villagers do not use and drink clean water—they especially children drink unboiled water from the well. They, as a consequence, are always vulnerable to watery diseases. In the Lao People’s Democratic Republic, diarrhea is the major cause of child mortality because approximately 45% of the total population has no access to safe water and they use water from the dug wells consisting of a higher turbidity, cloudy particles reducing the amount of oxygen in the water. (Fengthong, Desodom, Keosavanh, n.d). Furthermore, polluted or poor quality water containing disease-transmitting agents poses danger to human skin. When people use it for bathing, their skin will be itchy since bacteria or viruses contact their skin. If people do not have the itchy skin cured and continue using unclean water, the disease will be deteriorating from day to day. The skin, in the long run, will be cancerous and can put people in danger of death. Some illnesses do not appear after drinking or consuming unsafe water for several days, but those diseases lead to step-by-step damage to human organs such as liver, lung, bladder and kidney. In long time, people, from medical perspectives, will have hepatitis, emeritus and kidney problem. In some cases, the disease is a grave and incurable one which can put people’s lives in danger. What is more, some river or lake water containing acid rain, pesticide, industrial waste and microorganisms living in water can be harmful to human health. Chlorine, bacteria-disinfecting substance in water can also cause eyes and nose irritation. There is no doubt that poor quality drinking water poses a threat to human health. On the other hand, potable water benefits people a lot. Water has useful substances such as hydrogen and oxygen which lead to improved human well-being and resist any disease people are occupying. For instance, clean water can decrease the risk of kidney stone and remove toxins and wastes in human body. When people drink harmless water, there are no viruses or bacteria attacking their body. It is medically proven that people should drink at least 2-liter fresh water for their good health. As we have witnessed, people in a family who drink fresh water never come down with water-pertaining disease; on the contrary, they are in good health condition. If asked to compare the health of countryside people with the one of the capital regarding water quality using, we will see clearly that people in the capital are healthier than those in the countryside, for capital dwellers consume sanitary water and they pay attention to water quality. If people drink and consume unclean water, it is like the trees watered by acid rain. As a result, they will die out and so do people. The more fresh water people drink and the more they care about water quality, the healthier they are. As was previously mentioned, unsafe water provides people with negative impacts, especially damage to health. Unlike safe water, it is advantageous to people’s health and sustains people’s lives. Thus, people have to consume clean water in order to have good health; otherwise, people will deteriorate their health. Countryside people have to focus on this water problem. Surely that countryside people cannot afford to buy good quality water or bacteria-disinfected tool, but they should take special care to boil water for any use. Moreover, government plays an important role in increasing the access of hygienic water for people. More importantly, the government should use media to help enhance the use of clean water. Public information advertisements, for instance, are broadcast on television, radio, newspapers and educational pamphlets are distributed, and health workers descend on the infected area to teach safe sanitation methods and hygiene practices of using clean water.

‘persons’ and ‘peoples’

As a general rule, you’re absolutely right – person is used to refer to an individual, and the plural form is people. As you have said, we can also use peoples to talk about different groups within a nation or the world. For example:

The peoples of the world must unite to tackle climate change.
The peoples of India include Hindus, Muslims and Sikhs
.

However, in both these cases, it would also be correct to use the regular plural people instead of peoples, as in:

The people of the world must unite to tackle climate change.
The people of India include Hindus, Muslims and Sikhs
.

In fact, I think that the word peoples is considered slightly old-fashioned and isn’t used as much these days except in formal documents or speeches. Similarly, persons is considered to be quite formal and isn’t used often in day to day language. Here are a couple of examples of when it might be used:

We will be happy to accommodate up to four persons in each room.

This is an example of formal language that may be included in the terms and conditions of a contract or agreement, in this case to do with a hotel.

I was approached by a group of persons unknown to myself.

This is quite an old style of English and you rarely hear this spoken these days.

Interestingly, I noticed when I was working in India that the word persons was used much more regularly than in the UK and this may well be the case for other countries where English is widely spoken.

To complicate matters even further, people can also be used as a singular noun! Look at this example:

The Canadians are a people who enjoy nature and spending time outside.

This is really the only time that you would use it as a singular form though, when you are referring to the citizens of a particular state or country. So basically, both person and people can be used as singular nouns, people can be used as a plural noun and persons and peoples are also acceptable plural forms. I would say that these days, using people as a singular noun and both peoples and persons are fairly uncommon and do sound quite formal.

I hope this helps with your query and that you don’t despair too much with the complexities of the English language!